Scientific investigative techniques are constantly changing, improving and significantly enhancing our archaeological knowledge.

Archaeological science, also known as Archaeometry, comprises many furthe rsub-divisions which often overlap. Broadly, it involves the dating and the detailed scientific analysis of artefacts.

Dating techniques include: Thermoluminescence (for inorganic material), Radiocarbon dating (for organic material), the use of Bayesian statistics (CA 209), and Dendrochronology (using treerings). Artefact and material analysis includes lithic analysis (stone tools), archaeometallurgy, geophysical survey and methods employed in forensic, environmental and conservation archaeology.

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